Juneteenth 2023

Juneteenth, also known as Freedom Day or Emancipation Day, is a significant holiday celebrated annually on June 19th in the United States. It commemorates the emancipation of enslaved African Americans and serves as a reminder of the resilience, struggle, and perseverance of those who fought for freedom. The history behind Juneteenth is rooted in the complex and turbulent times of the American Civil War and the journey towards racial equality.


Juneteenth: The History of a Holiday

On June 19, 1865, enslaved African Americans in Texas were told they were free. A century and a half later, people across the United States continue to celebrate the day, which is now a federal holiday.

A Juneteenth celebration in Galveston, Texas, last year. The holiday traces its roots to the city.Credit…Callaghan O’Hare/Reuters
A woman wearing a red shirt and a straw hat waves a flag against a clear blue sky.


  • This article was originally published in 2020. It was updated in 2023.

Juneteenth, an annual commemoration of the end of slavery in the United States after the Civil War, has been celebrated by African Americans since the late 1800s.

President Biden signed legislation in 2021 that made Juneteenth, which falls on June 19, a federal holiday, after interest in the day was renewed during the summer of 2020 and the nationwide protests that followed the police killings of Black Americans including George Floyd and Breonna Taylor.

There has been a noticeable increase in Juneteenth celebrations across the United States over the past few years.


Dancer Prescylia Mae, of Houston, performs during a dedication ceremony for the giant mural “Absolute Equality” in downtown Galveston, Texas, in 2021.Credit…Stuart Villanueva/The Galveston County Daily News, via Associated Press


On June 19, 1865, about two months after the Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox, Va., Gordon Granger, a Union general, arrived in Galveston, Texas, to inform enslaved African Americans of their freedom and that the Civil War had ended. General Granger’s announcement put into effect the Emancipation Proclamation, which had been issued nearly two and a half years earlier, on Jan. 1, 1863, by President Abraham Lincoln.

The holiday is also called “Juneteenth Independence Day,” “Freedom Day” or “Emancipation Day.”

People play double dutch during a Juneteenth celebration in Fort Greene Park in Brooklyn in 2022.Credit…Stephanie Keith/Getty Images
A woman jumps rope on asphalt next to a patch of grass. People stand around smiling and laughing.


Early celebrations involved prayer and family gatherings, and later included annual pilgrimages to Galveston by former enslaved people and their families, according to Juneteenth.com.

In 1872, a group of African American ministers and businessmen in Houston purchased 10 acres of land and created Emancipation Park which was intended to hold the city’s annual Juneteenth celebration.

Today, while some celebrations take place among families in backyards where food is an integral element, some cities, like Atlanta and Washington, hold larger events, including parades and festivals with residents, local businesses and more.

While celebrations in 2020 and 2021 were largely subdued by the coronavirus pandemic, some cities ramped up their plans last year and plan to have bigger celebrations this year.

Galveston has remained a busy site for Juneteenth events over the years, said Douglas Matthews, who has helped coordinate them for more than two decades.

After dedicating a 5,000-square-foot mural in 2021, in 2023 Galveston will celebrate the holiday with a banquet, a scholarship ball and a festival. Organizers in Atlanta will hold a parade and music festival at Centennial Olympic Park, and similar events are scheduled in BrooklynLos AngelesPhiladelphia and Tulsa, Okla.

In 1980, Texas became the first state to designate Juneteenth as a holiday. All 50 states and the District of Columbia now recognize the day in some form.

In the wake of the nationwide protests against police brutality in 2020, the push for federal recognition of Juneteenth gained new momentum, and Congress quickly pushed through legislation in the summer of 2021.

In the House, the measure passed by a vote of 415 to 14, with all of the opposition coming from Republicans, some of whom argued that calling the new holiday Juneteenth Independence Day, echoing July 4, would create confusion and force Americans to choose a celebration of freedom based on their race.

On June 17, 2021, President Biden signed the bill into law, making Juneteenth the 11th holiday recognized by the federal government. At a White House ceremony, Mr. Biden singled out Opal Lee, an activist who at the age of 89 walked from her home in Fort Worth to Washington, D.C., and called her “a grandmother of the movement to make Juneteenth a federal holiday.”

The law went into effect immediately, and the first federal Juneteenth holiday was celebrated the next day. (The holiday was observed on June 18, as June 19 fell on a Saturday.)

Biden Signs Juneteenth Holiday Into Law

On Thursday, President Biden signed legislation making Juneteenth, which commemorates the end of slavery in the United States, a federal holiday. The measure was passed in the House and Senate with bipartisan support.

“Throughout history, Juneteenth has been known by many names: Jubilee Day, Freedom Day, Liberation Day, Emancipation Day, and today, a national holiday. [applause] When we establish a national holiday, it makes an important statement. National holidays are something important. These are days when we as a nation have decided to stop and take stock, and often to acknowledge our history.” “Juneteenth marks both a long, hard night of slavery, of subjugation, and a promise of a brighter morning to come. This is a day of profound, in my view, profound weight and profound power. A day in which we remember the moral stain, the terrible toll that slavery took on the country and continues to take. What I’ve long called America’s original sin. At the same time, I also remember the extraordinary capacity to heal and hope. And to emerge from those painful moments and a bitter, bitter version of ourselves. Thank you, man.” “Thank you.” “All right.” [applause]


1:45Biden Signs Juneteenth Holiday Into Law
On Thursday, President Biden signed legislation making Juneteenth, which commemorates the end of slavery in the United States, a federal holiday. The measure was passed in the House and Senate with bipartisan support.CreditCredit…Tom Brenner for The New York Times

Following the killing of George Floyd, a 46-year-old Black man who died in the custody of the Minneapolis Police in May 2020, thousands of people around the United States poured onto the streets in protest. Mr. Floyd’s name, as well as the names of Ms. TaylorMr. ArberyDavid McAtee and others, became a rallying cry for change across the country, effectively re-energizing the Black Lives Matter movement.

That change came in waves. In Minneapolis, officials banned the use of chokeholds and strangleholds by the police, and said officers must intervene and report any use of unauthorized force.

Democrats in Congress unveiled sweeping legislation targeting misconduct and racial discrimination by the police. The bill was the most expansive intervention into policing that lawmakers have proposed in recent memory.

Companies across the business spectrum voiced support for the Black Lives Matter movement and either suspended or fired employees who mocked Mr. Floyd’s death or made racist remarks.

In April 2021, Derek Chauvin, a former Minneapolis police officer, was found guilty of two counts of murder in the death of Mr. Floyd. But two years on, many of the city’s residents say that genuine change has been slow.

Mark Anthony Neal, an African-American studies scholar at Duke University, said there are some comparisons between the end of the Civil War to the unrest that swept the country, adding that the moment felt like a “rupture.”

“The stakes are a little different,” Mr. Neal said.

“I think Juneteenth feels a little different now,” he said. “It’s an opportunity for folks to kind of catch their breath about what has been this incredible pace of change and shifting that we’ve seen.”

A correction was made on

June 13, 2020


Because of an editing error, an earlier version of a picture caption with this article misstated the year the photo was taken. The parade pictured was in 2018, not last year.

A correction was made on

June 16, 2021


An earlier version of this article misstated the location of Robert E. Lee’s surrender to Ulysses S. Grant. It was at Appomattox Court House, Va., not Appomattox.

A correction was made on

June 20, 2022


An earlier version of this article misstated the amount of time between the Emancipation Proclamation and Gen. Gordon Granger’s arrival in Galveston, Texas, where he informed enslaved African Americans of their freedom. It was nearly — not more than — two and a half years.

When we learn of a mistake, we acknowledge it with a correction. If you spot an error, please let us know at nytnews@nytimes.com.Learn more

Derrick Bryson Taylor is a general assignment reporter. He previously worked at The New York Post’s PageSix.com and Essence magazine.

A version of this article appears in print on June 14, 2020, Section A, Pag